Last update March 11, 2022


Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

IgG1 monoclonal-antibody against tumor necrosis alpha factor (TNFα) which is used to treat autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis. Intravenous administration, initial dose, at 2 and 6 weeks and every 8 weeks

Its pharmacokinetic data (very high molecular weight and high binding to plasma proteins) explain the excretion in breast milk in undetectable amount (Mahadevan 2005, Vasiliauskas 2006, Stengel 2008, Kane 2009) or clinically non-significant. (Matro 2018, Glosen 2014, Fritzsche 2012, Ben-Horn 2011) 

Plasma levels of infants breastfed by mothers who were treated with Infliximab have resulted to be undetectable or very low. (Vasiliauskas 2006, Kane 2009, Fritzsche 2012, Steenholdt 2012)

Neither short nor long-term adverse effects on development, immunological response and/or infection rate, nor altered response to vaccination of infants whose mothers were taking Infliximab have been observed. (Mahadevan 2005, Vasiliauskas 2006, Stengel 2008, Kane 2009, Tursi 2010, Puig 2010, Correia 2010 , Fritzsche 2012, Steenholdt 2012)

Because it lacks of oral bioavailability, seems difficult any pass to the infant’s plasma through the ingested breastmilk (Amin 2018, Bae 2012), except on premature infants and immediate neonatal period, in which there may be an increased intestinal permeability.

Numerous experts and scientific societies of Rheumatology, Gastroenterology and Dermatology consider it to be a very low risk drug, and therefore, compatible while breastfeeding. (Sammaritano 2020, Mahadevan 2019 y 2015, Anderson 2019, Picardo 2019, Matro 2018, Amin 2018, Briggs 2017, Nguyen 2016, Flint 2016, Gotestam 2016, van der Houde 2015, Nielsen 2014, Hyrich 2014, Mahadevan 2011)

Some agencies recommend against administering live vaccines to infants while the mother is receiving infliximab unless the infant's serum levels of infliximab are undetectable. (AEMPS 2022)

See below the information of these related products:


We do not have alternatives for L04AB02 since it is relatively safe.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.


L04AB02 belongs to this group or family:


Main tradenames from several countries containing L04AB02 in its composition:


Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. ≈ 0 %
Molecular weight 144.190 daltons
Protein Binding 97 %
192 - 228 hours
M/P ratio 0.003 -
Theoretical Dose 0 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 0 %
Ped.Relat.Dose 0 %


  1. AEMPS. Infliximab (Remicade, Flixabi, Inflectra, Remsima y Zessly): Uso de vacunas vivas en lactantes que estuvieron expuestos en el útero o durante la lactancia. Comunicación dirigida a Profesionales Sanitarios. 2022 Full text (in our servers)
  2. Sammaritano LR, Bermas BL, Chakravarty EE, Chambers C, Clowse MEB, Lockshin MD, Marder W, Guyatt G, Branch DW, Buyon J, Christopher-Stine L, Crow-Hercher R, Cush J, Druzin M, Kavanaugh A, Laskin CA, Plante L, Salmon J, Simard J, Somers EC, Steen V, Tedeschi SK, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Management of Reproductive Health in Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Apr;72(4):529-556. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  3. Mahadevan U, Robinson C, Bernasko N, Boland B, Chambers C, Dubinsky M, Friedman S, Kane S, Manthey J, Sauberan J, Stone J, Jain R. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy Clinical Care Pathway: A Report From the American Gastroenterological Association IBD Parenthood Project Working Group. Gastroenterology. 2019 Apr;156(5):1508-1524. Abstract
  4. Lamb CA, Kennedy NA, Raine T, Hendy PA, Smith PJ, Limdi JK, Hayee B, Lomer MCE, Parkes GC, Selinger C, Barrett KJ, Davies RJ, Bennett C, Gittens S, Dunlop MG, Faiz O, Fraser A, Garrick V, Johnston PD, Parkes M, Sanderson J, Terry H; et al. British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut. 2019 Dec;68(Suppl 3):s1-s106. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  5. Picardo S, Seow CH. A Pharmacological Approach to Managing Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Conception, Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Biologic and Oral Small Molecule Therapy. Drugs. 2019 Jul;79(10):1053-1063. Abstract
  6. Anderson PO. Drug Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis During Breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2018 Nov;13(9):575-577. Abstract
  7. Matro R, Martin CF, Wolf D, Shah SA, Mahadevan U. Exposure Concentrations of Infants Breastfed by Women Receiving Biologic Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Effects of Breastfeeding on Infections and Development. Gastroenterology. 2018 Sep;155(3):696-704. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Amin M, No DJ, Egeberg A, Wu JJ. Choosing First-Line Biologic Treatment for Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis: What Does the Evidence Say? Am J Clin Dermatol. 2018 Feb;19(1):1-13. Abstract
  9. Flint J, Panchal S, Hurrell A, van de Venne M, Gayed M, Schreiber K, Arthanari S, Cunningham J, Flanders L, Moore L, Crossley A, Purushotham N, Desai A, Piper M, Nisar M, Khamashta M, Williams D, Gordon C, Giles I; BSR and BHPR Standards, Guidelines and Audit Working Group. BSR and BHPR guideline on prescribing drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding-Part I: standard and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and corticosteroids. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Sep;55(9):1693-7. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Nguyen GC, Seow CH, Maxwell C, Huang V, Leung Y, Jones J, Leontiadis GI, Tse F, Mahadevan U, van der Woude CJ; IBD in Pregnancy Consensus Group. The Toronto Consensus Statements for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy. Gastroenterology. 2016 Mar;150(3):734-757.e1. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Götestam Skorpen C, Hoeltzenbein M, Tincani A, Fischer-Betz R, Elefant E, Chambers C, da Silva J, Nelson-Piercy C, Cetin I, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Dolhain R, Förger F, Khamashta M, Ruiz-Irastorza G, Zink A, Vencovsky J, Cutolo M, Caeyers N, Zumbühl C, Østensen M. The EULAR points to consider for use of antirheumatic drugs before pregnancy, and during pregnancy and lactation. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 May;75(5):795-810. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  12. Huang VW, Chang HJ, Kroeker KI, Goodman KJ, Hegadoren KM, Dieleman LA, Fedorak RN. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Varies Widely: A Need for Further Education. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2016:6193275. Epub 2016 Sep 20. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. McConnell RA, Mahadevan U. Pregnancy and the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Fertility, Treatment, Delivery, and Complications. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2016 Abstract
  14. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Towers CV, Forinash AB. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. Wolters Kluwer Health. Tenth edition (acces on line) 2015
  15. Mahadevan U, Matro R. Care of the Pregnant Patient With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Aug;126(2):401-12. Abstract
  16. van der Woude CJ, Ardizzone S, Bengtson MB, Fiorino G, Fraser G, Katsanos K, Kolacek S, Juillerat P, Mulders AG, Pedersen N, Selinger C, Sebastian S, Sturm A, Zelinkova Z, Magro F; European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization. The second European evidenced-based consensus on reproduction and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2015 Feb;9(2):107-24. Review. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. Chaparro M. [Natural history, complications, safety and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;38 Suppl 1:20-31. Abstract
  18. Damas OM, Deshpande AR, Avalos DJ, Abreu MT. Treating Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy: The Issues We Face Today. J Crohns Colitis. 2015 Oct;9(10):928-36. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Calligaro A, Hoxha A, Ruffatti A, Punzi L. Are biological drugs safe in pregnancy? Reumatismo. 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  20. Mervic L. Management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in pregnancy and lactation in the era of biologics. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2014;23(2):27-31. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  21. Schulze H, Esters P, Dignass A. Review article: the management of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis during pregnancy and lactation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Nov;40(9):991-1008. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  22. Butler DC, Heller MM, Murase JE. Safety of dermatologic medications in pregnancy and lactation: Part II. Lactation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Mar;70(3):417.e1-10; quiz 427. Abstract
  23. Hassid B, Mahadevan U. The use of biologic therapy in pregnancy: a gastroenterologist's perspective. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2014 Abstract
  24. Hyrich KL, Verstappen SM. Biologic therapies and pregnancy: the story so far. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Aug;53(8):1377-85. Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  25. Huang VW, Habal FM. From conception to delivery: managing the pregnant inflammatory bowel disease patient. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  26. Nielsen OH, Maxwell C, Hendel J. IBD medications during pregnancy and lactation. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Feb;11(2):116-27. Abstract
  27. Grosen A, Julsgaard M, Kelsen J, Christensen LA. Infliximab concentrations in the milk of nursing mothers with inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  28. Witzel SJ. Lactation and the use of biologic immunosuppressive medications. Breastfeed Med. 2014 Dec;9(10):543-6. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  29. Sammaritano LR, Bermas BL. Rheumatoid arthritis medications and lactation. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2014 Abstract
  30. Mahadevan U, Wolf DC, Dubinsky M, Cortot A, Lee SD, Siegel CA, Ullman T, Glover S, Valentine JF, Rubin DT, Miller J, Abreu MT. Placental transfer of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in pregnant patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Mar;11(3):286-92; quiz e24. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  31. Gisbert JP, Chaparro M. Safety of anti-TNF agents during pregnancy and breastfeeding in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;108(9):1426-38. Abstract
  32. Yarur A, Kane SV. Update on pregnancy and breastfeeding in the era of biologics. Dig Liver Dis. 2013 Oct;45(10):787-94. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  33. Persić M. [Anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases during pregnancy and breast-feeding]. Acta Med Croatica. 2013 Abstract
  34. Bae YS, Van Voorhees AS, Hsu S, Korman NJ, Lebwohl MG, Young M, Bebo B Jr, Kimball AB; National Psoriasis Foundation. Review of treatment options for psoriasis in pregnant or lactating women: from the Medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Abstract
  35. Steenholdt C, Al-Khalaf M, Ainsworth MA, Brynskov J. Therapeutic infliximab drug level in a child born to a woman with ulcerative colitis treated until gestation week 31. J Crohns Colitis. 2012 Abstract
  36. Selinger CP, Leong RW, Lal S. Pregnancy related issues in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence base and patients' perspective. World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  37. Fritzsche J, Pilch A, Mury D, Schaefer C, Weber-Schoendorfer C. Infliximab and adalimumab use during breastfeeding. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Sep;46(8):718-9. Abstract
  38. Habal FM, Huang VW. Review article: a decision-making algorithm for the management of pregnancy in the inflammatory bowel disease patient. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  39. Mahadevan U, Cucchiara S, Hyams JS, Steinwurz F, Nuti F, Travis SP, Sandborn WJ, Colombel JF. The London Position Statement of the World Congress of Gastroenterology on Biological Therapy for IBD with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation: pregnancy and pediatrics. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Feb;106(2):214-23; quiz 224. Abstract
  40. Ben-Horin S, Yavzori M, Kopylov U, Picard O, Fudim E, Eliakim R, Chowers Y, Lang A. Detection of infliximab in breast milk of nursing mothers with inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  41. van der Woude CJ, Kolacek S, Dotan I, Oresland T, Vermeire S, Munkholm P, Mahadevan U, Mackillop L, Dignass A; European Crohn's Colitis Organisation (ECCO). European evidenced-based consensus on reproduction in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  42. Miehsler W, Novacek G, Wenzl H, Vogelsang H, Knoflach P, Kaser A, Dejaco C, Petritsch W, Kapitan M, Maier H, Graninger W, Tilg H, Reinisch W; Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. A decade of infliximab: The Austrian evidence based consensus on the safe use of infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2010 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  43. Correia LM, Bonilha DQ, Ramos JD, Ambrogini O, Miszputen SJ. Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy: report of two cases treated with infliximab and a review of the literature. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Abstract
  44. Gisbert JP. Safety of immunomodulators and biologics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 May;16(5):881-95. Abstract
  45. Van Assche G, Dignass A, Reinisch W, van der Woude CJ, Sturm A, De Vos M, Guslandi M, Oldenburg B, Dotan I, Marteau P, Ardizzone A, Baumgart DC, D'Haens G, Gionchetti P, Portela F, Vucelic B, Söderholm J, Escher J, Koletzko S, Kolho KL, Lukas M, Mottet C, et al. The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Special situations. J Crohns Colitis. 2010 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  46. Puig L, Barco D, Alomar A. Treatment of psoriasis with anti-TNF drugs during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Dermatology. 2010 Abstract
  47. Fischer-Betz RE, Schneider M. [Biologics during pregnancy and breast--feeding]. Z Rheumatol. 2010 Abstract
  48. Ostensen M. Management of early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy and lactation. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Abstract
  49. Mottet C, Vader JP, Felley C, Froehlich F, Gonvers JJ, Juillerat P, Stockbrügger R, Angelucci E, Seibold F, Michetti P, Pittet V; EPACT II Study Group. Appropriate management of special situations in Crohn's disease (upper gastro-intestinal; extra-intestinal manifestations; drug safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding): Results of a multidisciplinary international expert panel-EPACT II. J Crohns Colitis. 2009 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  50. Hou JK, Mahadevan U. A 24-year-old pregnant woman with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Abstract
  51. Kane S, Ford J, Cohen R, Wagner C. Absence of infliximab in infants and breast milk from nursing mothers receiving therapy for Crohn's disease before and after delivery. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009 Abstract
  52. Pache I, Rogler G, Felley C. TNF-alpha blockers in inflammatory bowel diseases: practical consensus recommendations and a user's guide. Swiss Med Wkly. 2009 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  53. Weber JC, Kuhnert C. Traitements de fond des affections inflammatoires systémiques au cours de l’allaitement. [Breastfeeding and drug management in connective tissue and rheumatic diseases]. Rev Med Interne. 2008 Dec;29(12):1017-23. Abstract
  54. Stengel JZ, Arnold HL. Is infliximab safe to use while breastfeeding? World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Abstract
  55. Østensen M, Motta M. Therapy insight: the use of antirheumatic drugs during nursing. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007 Abstract
  56. Heetun ZS, Byrnes C, Neary P, O'Morain C. Review article: Reproduction in the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  57. Mottet C, Juillerat P, Pittet V, Gonvers JJ, Froehlich F, Vader JP, Michetti P, Felley C. Pregnancy and breastfeeding in patients with Crohn's disease. Digestion. 2007 Abstract
  58. Tursi A. Effect of intentional infliximab use throughout pregnancy in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2006 Abstract
  59. Østensen M, Khamashta M, Lockshin M, Parke A, Brucato A, Carp H, Doria A, Rai R, Meroni P, Cetin I, Derksen R, Branch W, Motta M, Gordon C, Ruiz-Irastorza G, Spinillo A, Friedman D, Cimaz R, Czeizel A, Piette JC, Cervera R, Levy RA, et al. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  60. Vasiliauskas EA, Church JA, Silverman N, Barry M, Targan SR, Dubinsky MC. Case report: evidence for transplacental transfer of maternally administered infliximab to the newborn. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Abstract
  61. Mahadevan U, Kane S. American gastroenterological association institute technical review on the use of gastrointestinal medications in pregnancy. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jul;131(1):283-311. Review. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  62. Mahadevan U, Kane S, Sandborn WJ, Cohen RD, Hanson K, Terdiman JP, Binion DG. Intentional infliximab use during pregnancy for induction or maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Abstract

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