Last update: Dec. 29, 2019

Theobromine

Very Low Risk for breastfeeding


Safe. Compatible.
Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

El fruto de la planta del cacao (Theobroma cacao) contiene metilxantinas (teobromina y cafeína) y polifenoles (epicatequina, catequina) con propiedades antioxidantes (Langer 2011)
La teobromina es la principal xantina del cacao, habiendo también cantidades muy pequeñas de cafeína y ácido caféico (Caprioli 2016). 100 g de chocolate negro contienen unos 700 mg de teobromina; 100 g de chocolate con leche contienen unos 200 mg.
El té, la yerba mate, el guaraná y la nuez de cola contienen pequeñas cantidades de teobromina

La teobromina es una xantina con propiedades mas débiles broncodilatadoras y cardiovasculares que la cafeína y tiene escasa actividad excitante sobre el sistema nervioso central. No se utiliza actualmente en medicina humana, no estando comercializada como tal.

La teobromina y la epicatequina se absorben bien, pasan a plasma en muy baja concentración (Richelle 1999) y se excretan en leche materna en moderada cantidad (Khymenets 2016, Resman 1977). Un lactante puede acabar consumiendo la quinta parte de lo consumido por su madre expresado en miligramos por kilo de peso (dosis relativa del 20%)

Muy pocos trabajos han relacionado el consumo materno "normal" de chocolate con problemas en el lactante y son de metodología cuestionable para atribuir concretamente la causa del problema al chocolate (McCreedy 2018). Se ha visto empeoramiento de dermatitis atópica en lactantes de madres que tomaban chocolate y café (Uenishi 2011) y mayor frecuencia de cólico en lactantes de madres que tomaban chocolate (Lust 1996, Evans 1981).
Un lactante menor de un mes de una madre que consumía diariamente mucho chocolate (250 g diarios) durante el embarazo y la lactancia presentó síndrome de hiperexcitabilidad que desapareció al suprimir la madre el consumo de chocolate (Cambria 2006).

Las madres lactantes que consumen café o chocolate de modo no excesivo no presentan concentraciones de metilxantinas en leche materna clínicamente significativas para el lactante (Blanchard 1992).
Un consumo ocasional o moderado de chocolate es improbable que tenga efectos significativos en los lactantes.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Theobromine is also known as


Theobromine in other languages or writings:

Group

Theobromine belongs to this group or family:

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Molecular weight 180 daltons
Protein Binding 30 %
VD 0,62 l/Kg
pKa 9,28 -
Tmax 2 - 3 hours
T1/2 7 ± 2 hours
M/P ratio 0,8 ± 0,2 -
Theoretical Dose 0,8 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 20 %

References

  1. McCreedy A, Bird S, Brown LJ, Shaw-Stewart J, Chen YF. Effects of maternal caffeine consumption on the breastfed child: a systematic review. Swiss Med Wkly. 2018 Sep 28;148:w14665. Abstract
  2. Khymenets O, Rabassa M, Rodríguez-Palmero M, Rivero-Urgell M, Urpi-Sarda M, Tulipani S, Brandi P, Campoy C, Santos-Buelga C, Andres-Lacueva C. Dietary Epicatechin Is Available to Breastfed Infants through Human Breast Milk in the Form of Host and Microbial Metabolites. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jul 6;64(26):5354-60. Abstract
  3. Caprioli G, Fiorini D, Maggi F, Nicoletti M, Ricciutelli M, Toniolo C, Prosper B, Vittori S, Sagratini G. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Jun;67(4):422-30. Abstract
  4. Uenishi T, Sugiura H, Tanaka T, Uehara M. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk. J Dermatol. 2011 Feb;38(2):140-5. Abstract
  5. Langer S, Marshall LJ, Day AJ, Morgan MR. Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 10;59(15):8435-41. Abstract
  6. Cambria S, Manganaro R, Mamì C, Marseglia L, Gemelli M. Hyperexcitability syndrome in a newborn infant of chocoholic mother. Am J Perinatol. 2006 Oct;23(7):421-2. Epub 2006 Sep 28. Abstract
  7. Richelle M, Tavazzi I, Enslen M, Offord EA. Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan;53(1):22-6. Abstract
  8. Lust KD, Brown JE, Thomas W. Maternal intake of cruciferous vegetables and other foods and colic symptoms in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Abstract
  9. Blanchard J, Weber CW, Shearer LE. Methylxanthine levels in breast milk of lactating women of different ethnic and socioeconomic classes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1992 Apr;13(3):187-96. Abstract
  10. Evans RW, Fergusson DM, Allardyce RA, Taylor B. Maternal diet and infantile colic in breast-fed infants. Lancet. 1981 Jun 20;1(8234):1340-2. Abstract
  11. Resman BH, Blumenthal P, Jusko WJ. Breast milk distribution of theobromine from chocolate. J Pediatr. 1977 Sep;91(3):477-80. Abstract

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