Last update: Sept. 9, 2015

Phenobarbital

Low Risk for breastfeeding


Moderately safe. Probably compatible.
Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended.
Read the Comment.

It is a barbiturate drug. Because it has a sedative effect, it is being displaced by other anti-epilepsy drugs in the treatment of chronic epilepsy.

Excretion into the breast milk is quite variable with concentrations that could reach clinically significant levels.

A sedative effect in infants from mothers who were treated has been described, as well as Abstinence Syndrome with spasms after sudden weaning, mostly in newborns.

Follow-up for alertness and adequate feeding in the infant is recommended. Plasma level monitoring may be required in infants for both cases in which sedation has occurred or a follow-up for a progressive weaning is desired.

Alternatives

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Phenobarbital is also known as


Phenobarbital in other languages or writings:

Group

Phenobarbital belongs to this group or family:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Phenobarbital in its composition:

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. 70 - 90 %
Molecular weight 232 daltons
Protein Binding 20 - 45 %
VD 0,7 (0,3 - 1) l/Kg
Tmax 8 - 12 hours
T1/2 96 (50 - 120) hours
M/P ratio 0,4 - 0,6 -
Theoretical Dose 0,4 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 12-25 %
Relat.Ped.Dose 5 - 8 %

References

  1. Crettenand M, Rossetti AO, Buclin T, Winterfeld U. [Use of antiepileptic drugs during breastfeeding : What do we tell the mother?] Nervenarzt. 2018 Abstract
  2. Davanzo R, Dal Bo S, Bua J, Copertino M, Zanelli E, Matarazzo L. Antiepileptic drugs and breastfeeding. Ital J Pediatr. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  3. Mercadé Cerdá JM, Sancho Rieger J, Mauri Llerda JA, López González FJ,Salas Puig X. Guías diagnósticas y terapéuticas de la Sociedad Española de Neurología 2012. 1. Guía oficial de práctica clínica en epilepsia. Guías SEN 2012 Full text (in our servers)
  4. Rauchenzauner M, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Rostasy K, Luef G. Old and new antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation--report of a case. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 Abstract
  5. O'Connor SE, Zupanc ML. Women and epilepsy. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. Harden CL, Pennell PB, Koppel BS, Hovinga CA, Gidal B, Meador KJ, Hopp J, Ting TY, Hauser WA, Thurman D, Kaplan PW, Robinson JN, French JA, Wiebe S, Wilner AN, Vazquez B, Holmes L, Krumholz A, Finnell R, Shafer PO, Le Guen C; American Academy of Neurology; et al. Practice parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy--focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): vitamin K, folic acid, blood levels, and breastfeeding: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of... Neurology. 2009 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Pennell PB. 2005 AES annual course: evidence used to treat women with epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Pack AM. Therapy insight: clinical management of pregnant women with epilepsy. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2006 Abstract
  9. Tomson T. Gender aspects of pharmacokinetics of new and old AEDs: pregnancy and breast-feeding. Ther Drug Monit. 2005 Abstract
  10. O'Brien MD, Gilmour-White SK. Management of epilepsy in women. Postgrad Med J. 2005 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Rubin ET, Lee A, Ito S. When breastfeeding mothers need CNS-acting drugs. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Fall;11(2):e257-66. Epub 2004 Dec 8. Abstract
  12. Pennell PB. Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and lactation. Neurology. 2003 Abstract
  13. WHO / UNICEF. BREASTFEEDING AND MATERNAL MEDICATION Recommendations for Drugs in the Eleventh WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (WHO/UNICEF) 2002 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  14. Bar-Oz B, Nulman I, Koren G, Ito S. Anticonvulsants and breast feeding: a critical review. Paediatr Drugs. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):113-26. Review. Abstract
  15. Hägg S, Spigset O. Anticonvulsant use during lactation. Drug Saf. 2000 Jun;22(6):425-40. Review. Abstract
  16. Moretti ME, Lee A, Ito S. Which drugs are contraindicated during breastfeeding? Practice guidelines. Can Fam Physician. 2000 Sep;46:1753-7. Review. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. Pons G, Rey E, Matheson I. Excretion of psychoactive drugs into breast milk. Pharmacokinetic principles and recommendations. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1994 Abstract
  18. Meyer FP, Quednow B, Potrafki A, Walther H. [Pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants in the perinatal period]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1988 Abstract
  19. Nau H, Kuhnz W, Egger HJ, Rating D, Helge H. Anticonvulsants during pregnancy and lactation. Transplacental, maternal and neonatal pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1982 Abstract
  20. Kaneko S, Sato T, Suzuki K. The levels of anticonvulsants in breast milk. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)

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