Last update: June 22, 2016

Oenothera lamarckiana

Very Low Risk for breastfeeding

Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.

Oil seeds, plant infusion and the root are used as a dietary supplement.
It contains 14% of essential oil that is rich in cis-linolenic acid (70%) and gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) (10%), both precursors of prostaglandins. It is also rich in palmitic (10%) and stearic acids (10%).
Attributed properties: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, platelet antiaggregant activity.
Indications by the Commission E of the German Health Ministry: non.
Effectiveness is still under debate on atopic dermatitis, premenstrual syndrome, mastalgia, multiple sclerosis, psychiatric diseases and rheumatic diseases.
Also, its effectiveness as an inducer of childbirth is unclear.

The cis-linoleic acid and gamma are natural constituents of human milk.
The administration of evening primrose oil for months to nursing mothers, increases the levels of fatty acids in milk without adverse effects in either the mother or infant.
Moreover, administration of GLA to mothers does not prevent the appearance of atopic dermatitis in infants.

Given the lack of toxicity, moderate consumption during lactation is considered of little or no risk.

The total concentration of fat and linoleic acid in banked milk is decreased due to pasteurization and freezing.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Oenothera lamarckiana is Evening Primrose in Latin, botanical name.

Is written in other languages:

Oenothera lamarckiana is also known as


Oenothera lamarckiana belongs to these groups or families:


Main tradenames from several countries containing Oenothera lamarckiana in its composition:


  1. Amer MR, Cipriano GC, Venci JV, Gandhi MA. Safety of Popular Herbal Supplements in Lactating Women. J Hum Lact. 2015 Abstract
  2. Dante G, Bellei G, Neri I, Facchinetti F. Herbal therapies in pregnancy: what works? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Abstract
  3. Vázquez-Román S, Alonso-Díaz C, García-Lara NR, Escuder-Vieco D, Pallás-Alonso CR. Medida por crematocrito del contenido calórico de la leche materna donada congelada. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2014 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  4. Vázquez-Román S, Alonso-Díaz C, García-Lara NR, Escuder-Vieco D, Pallás-Alonso CR. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2014 Abstract
  5. The Royal Women’s Hospital Victoria Australia. Herbal and Traditional Medicines in Breasfeeding. Fact Sheet. 2013 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. García-Lara NR, Vieco DE, De la Cruz-Bértolo J, Lora-Pablos D, Velasco NU, Pallás-Alonso CR. Effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage on macronutrients and energy content of breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Abstract
  7. García-Lara NR, Escuder-Vieco D, García-Algar O, De la Cruz J, Lora D, Pallás-Alonso C. Effect of freezing time on macronutrients and energy content of breastmilk. Breastfeed Med. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Amir LH, Pirotta MV, Raval M. Breastfeeding--evidence based guidelines for the use of medicines. Aust Fam Physician. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  9. Kitz R, Rose MA, Schönborn H, Zielen S, Böhles HJ. Impact of early dietary gamma-linolenic acid supplementation on atopic eczema in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006 Abstract
  10. Chrubasik S, Pollak S. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002 Abstract
  11. Hardy ML. Herbs of special interest to women. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000 Abstract
  12. WHO. World Health Organization. Geneva. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 2. WHO monographs. 1999 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. Woltil HA, van Beusekom CM, Schaafsma A, Okken A, Muskiet FA. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999 Abstract
  14. Wetzig NR. Mastalgia: a 3 year Australian study. Aust N Z J Surg. 1994 Abstract
  15. Cant A, Shay J, Horrobin DF. The effect of maternal supplementation with linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids on the fat composition and content of human milk: a placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1991 Abstract
  16. Wardell JM, Hill CM, D'Souza SW. Effect of pasteurization and of freezing and thawing human milk on its triglyceride content. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1981 Abstract

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e-lactancia is a resource recommended by Instituto de Salud Infantil, Grecia-Institute of Child's Health in Greece

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