Last update Aug. 1, 2022
Very Low Risk
Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.
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Theobromine is also known as
Theobromine in other languages or writings:
Theobromine belongs to these groups or families:
|Tmax||2 - 3||hours|
|T½||7 ± 2||hours|
|M/P ratio||0.8 ± 0.2||-|
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e-lactancia is a resource recommended by Asociación Pro Lactancia Materna (APROLAM) of Mexico
Would you like to recommend the use of e-lactancia? Write to us at corporate mail of APILAM
The fruit of the cacao plant (Theobroma cacao) contains methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) and polyphenols (epicatechin, catechin) with antioxidant properties (Langer 2011). Theobromine is the main xanthine in cocoa, and there are also very small amounts of caffeine and caffeic acid (Caprioli 2016). 100 g of dark chocolate contains about 700 mg of theobromine; 100 g of milk chocolate contains about 200 mg. Tea, yerba mate, guarana and kola nut contain small amounts of theobromine.
Theobromine is a xanthine with weaker bronchodilatory and cardiovascular properties than caffeine and has little excitatory activity on the central nervous system. It is not currently used in human medicine, not being sold as such.
Theobromine and epicatechin are well absorbed, transfer to plasma in very low concentrations (Richelle 1999) and are excreted in breastmilk in moderate amounts. (Khymenets 2016, Resman 1977)
An infant may end up consuming a fifth of what the mother consumed, expressed in milligrams per kilo of weight: relative infant dose of 20%.
Very few studies have linked "normal" maternal consumption of chocolate with problems in the infant and are of questionable methodology to specifically attribute the cause of the problem to chocolate. (McCreedy 2018)
Worsening atopic dermatitis has been observed in infants whose mothers consumed chocolate and coffee (Uenishi 2011) and increased frequency of colic in infants of mothers who consumed chocolate . (Lust 1996, Evans 1981)
An infant less than one month old whose mother consumed a a considerable amount of chocolate (250 g per day) during pregnancy and breastfeeding developed hyperexcitability syndrome, which disappeared when the mother stopped consuming chocolate. (Cambria 2006)
Breastfeeding mothers who consume coffee or chocolate in a non-excessive way do not have clinically significant concentrations of methylxanthines in breastmilk for the infant. (Blanchard 1992)
Occasional or moderate consumption of chocolate is unlikely to have significant effects on infants.
DERMATOLOGICAL TOPICAL USE:
Cocoa butter is an oil extracted from the fruit of the plant; It is rich in triglycerides and has antioxidant properties. In addition to making chocolate, it is used in cosmetic products and is approved by the FDA to prevent diaper rash in newborns. (Can Gürkan 2022)
One study with many limitations showed that applying cocoa butter to the nipples is possibly a more effective method than applying breast milk for preventing nipple soreness, swelling, or cracks. It should be applied after breastfeeding and cleaned with water before the next feeding. (Can Gürkan 2022)