Last update Dec. 2, 2022

Fever tree

High Risk

Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully. Use safer alternative or interrupt breastfeeding 3 to 7 T ½ (elimination half-lives). Read the Comment.

The leaves are the part of the tree that is used. They contains essential oil (1,8-cineole or eucalyptol, globulol, trans-pinocarveol, α-terpineol, cymen, α-pinene and β-pinene), hydrocyanic acid, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids (phytotherapy.net). Attributed Properties: Systemic use: expectorant, mucolytic; topical use: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and healing. The European Medicines Agency (EMA 2014) and Commission E (Blumenthal 1998) approve its oral use to treat cold symptoms and its topical use for localized muscle and joint pain. Oral, dermal and inhalation administration.

At the date of the last update, the authors did not find any published data on its excretion in breast milk.

Various components of eucalyptus are excreted in breast milk and confer a characteristic odor and flavor to milk that could be perceived by the infant. (Debong 2020, Spahn 2019, Kirsch 2012)

Eucalyptol has no suppressive activity on breast epithelial cells. (Suzuki 2020)

Eucalyptol is neurotoxic and convulsive (Burkhard 1999). Overdosing of essential oil can cause severe neurological depression in adults and children. (Hale, Waldman 2011, Halicioglu 2011, Darben 1998, Webb 1993, Patel 1980)

The European Medicines Agency contraindicated it in children with a history of seizures and in children under 30 months and did not recommend it in children under 4 years and during breastfeeding. (EMA 2014)

Due to the toxicity of its essential oil, it is not prudent to use it during breastfeeding outside of occasional and moderate use.

Topical use is compatible with breast-feeding as long as it is not applied to the breast.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Fever tree is also known as Eucalyptus. Here it is a list of alternative known names::


Fever tree in other languages or writings:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Fever tree in its composition:

References

  1. Fitoterapia.net. Vanaclocha B, Cañigueral S. Fitoterapia.net. 1992 - - Disponible en: https://www.fitoterapia.net. Consulted on Dec. 21, 2023 Abstract
  2. Hale TW. Medications & Mothers' Milk. 1991- . Springer Publishing Company. Available from https://www.halesmeds.com Consulted on March 17, 2022 Full text (link to original source)
  3. Debong MW, Loos HM. Diet-Induced Flavor Changes in Human Milk: Update and Perspectives. J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Sep 23;68(38):10275-10280. Abstract
  4. Suzuki N, Tsugami Y, Wakasa H, Suzuki T, Nishimura T, Kobayashi K. Menthol from Mentha piperita Suppresses the Milk Production of Lactating Mammary Epithelial Cells In Vivo and In Vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2020 Nov 14:e2000853. Abstract
  5. Spahn JM, Callahan EH, Spill MK, Wong YP, Benjamin-Neelon SE, Birch L, Black MM, Cook JT, Faith MS, Mennella JA, Casavale KO. Influence of maternal diet on flavor transfer to amniotic fluid and breast milk and children's responses: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Mar 1;109(Suppl_7):1003S-1026S. Abstract
  6. EMA. Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) Community herbal monograph on Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker and/or Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker, aetheroleum. 2014 Full text (in our servers)
  7. Kirsch F, Beauchamp J, Buettner A. Time-dependent aroma changes in breast milk after oral intake of a pharmacological preparation containing 1,8-cineole. Clin Nutr. 2012 Abstract
  8. Halicioglu O, Astarcioglu G, Yaprak I, Aydinlioglu H. Toxicity of Salvia officinalis in a newborn and a child: an alarming report. Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Oct;45(4):259-60. Abstract
  9. Waldman W, Barwina M, Sein Anand J. [Accidental intoxication with eucalyptus oil--a case report]. Przegl Lek. 2011 Abstract
  10. WHO. World Health Organization. Geneva. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 2. WHO monographs. 2002 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem. J Neurol. 1999 Aug;246(8):667-70. Abstract
  12. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins CW, Rister RS, editors. The American Botanical Council. The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Integrative Medicine Com; Boston, MA, USA: 1998
  13. Darben T, Cominos B, Lee CT. Topical eucalyptus oil poisoning. Australas J Dermatol. 1998 Abstract
  14. Webb NJ, Pitt WR. Eucalyptus oil poisoning in childhood: 41 cases in south-east Queensland. J Paediatr Child Health. 1993 Abstract
  15. Patel S, Wiggins J. Eucalyptus oil poisoning. Arch Dis Child. 1980 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)

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