Last update Jan. 3, 2021

Dipivefrine Hydrochloride


Safe substance and/or breastfeeding is the best option.

Ester and prodrug of epinephrine (FDA 2000, Goldberg 1980) which is used as topical eye drops for treatment of glaucoma.
Administration: 1 drop in affected eye every 12 hours.

At the time this last update was completed, we did not find published data regarding the excretion of this substance through breast milk.

Its low oral bioavailability hinders its passage to the infant's plasma from ingested milk.

A newborn whose mother was treated with dipivefrine had no clinical problems (Johnson 2001).

Because the small dose used and poor plasma absorption of most ophthalmic preparations it is unlikely the passage of significant amount into breast milk.

Epinephrine is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract. The low oral-bioavailability makes its levels into infant's plasma, that would be absorbed from ingested breast milk, be nil or negligible.

Absorption should be minimized by closing the eye after instillation, applying pressure for 1 to 5 minutes with your finger on the tear duct at the inner corner of the eye and administering the dose immediately after nursing (Belkin 2020, Johnson 2001).

Expert authors consider the use of this medication to be safe or very probably safe during breastfeeding (Hale 2021).


  • Timolol Maleate (Safe substance and/or breastfeeding is the best option.)

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Dipivefrine Hydrochloride is also known as

Dipivefrine Hydrochloride in other languages or writings:


Dipivefrine Hydrochloride belongs to this group or family:


Main tradenames from several countries containing Dipivefrine Hydrochloride in its composition:


Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. Baja - Low %
Molecular weight 388 daltons
pKa 14 -
Tmax 1 hours


  1. Hale TW. Medications & Mothers' Milk. 1991- . Springer Publishing Company. Available from Consulted on April 10, 2024 Full text (link to original source)
  2. Belkin A, Chen T, DeOliveria AR, Johnson SM, Ramulu PY, Buys YM; American Glaucoma Society and the Canadian Glaucoma Society.. A Practical Guide to the Pregnant and Breastfeeding Patient with Glaucoma. Ophthalmol Glaucoma. 2020 Mar - Apr;3(2):79-89. Abstract
  3. Johnson SM, Martinez M, Freedman S. Management of glaucoma in pregnancy and lactation. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Mar-Apr;45(5):449-54. Abstract
  4. FDA-Allergan. Dipivefrin. Drug Summary. 2000 Full text (in our servers)
  5. Goldberg I, Kolker AE, Kass MA, Becker B. Dipivefrin: current concepts. Aust J Ophthalmol. 1980 May;8(2):147-50. Abstract

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