Last update Dec. 19, 2020

Cystic Fibrosis of the Infant (CF)

Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended during the first 6 months; prolonged breastfeeding is beneficial for patients with CF and protects against deterioration of lung function, decreases the number of infections and improves nutritional status (Lawrence 2016 p494, Colombo 2007). Breast milk provides enzymes to facilitate digestion and absorption of nutrients (Lawrence 2016 p494).
Exclusive breastfeeding for more than 6 months is associated with less serious disease and less use of intravenous antibiotics in patients with CF (Parker 2004).

Gastroenterology and Nutrition consensus and protocols from Europe (Turck 2016, Sermet 2010, Sinaasappel 2002) and the US (Borowitz 2002) recommend breastfeeding as the main source of nutrition during the first year of life in patients with cystic fibrosis.

The specialized support of certified lactation consultants (International Board Certified Lactation Consultant - IBCLC) has shown a longer duration of breastfeeding in infants with CF (Miller 2019).

For the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, doses need to be correct and modern preparations of pancreatic enzymes should be used to avoid irritation of the infant's mouth and the mother's nipples (Sinaasappel 2002). Infants require 2,000 to 4,000 IU of lipase per breast-feeding (NASPGHAN 2018, Sojo 2009).

Specific indications for supplements of Vitamin K, sodium and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to exclusively breastfed infants are necessary (Turck 2016, Sermet 2010).

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Cystic Fibrosis of the Infant (CF) is also known as


Cystic Fibrosis of the Infant (CF) belongs to this group or family:


  1. Miller T, Antos NJ, Brock LA, Wade T, Goday PS. Lactation Consultation Sustains Breast Milk Intake in Infants With Cystic Fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019 Sep;69(3):358-362. Abstract
  2. NASPGHAN-ESPGHAN. Abu-El-Haija M, Uc A, Werlin SL, Freeman AJ, Georgieva M, Jojkić-Pavkov D, Kalnins D, Kochavi B, Koot BGP, Van Biervliet S, Walkowiak J, Wilschanski M, Morinville VD. Nutritional Considerations in Pediatric Pancreatitis: A Position Paper from the NASPGHAN Pancreas Committee and ESPGHAN Cystic Fibrosis/Pancreas Working Group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 Jul;67(1):131-143. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  3. Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding. A guide for the medical profession. Eighth Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016
  4. Turck D, Braegger CP, Colombo C, Declercq D, Morton A, Pancheva R, Robberecht E, Stern M, Strandvik B, Wolfe S, Schneider SM, Wilschanski M. ESPEN-ESPGHAN-ECFS guidelines on nutrition care for infants, children, and adults with cystic fibrosis. Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun;35(3):557-77. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  5. Sermet-Gaudelus I, Mayell SJ, Southern KW; European Cystic Finrosis Society (ECFS), Neonatal Screening Working Group.. Guidelines on the early management of infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis following newborn screening. J Cyst Fibros. 2010 Sep;9(5):323-9. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. Sojo Aguirre A. Insuficiencia pancreática exocrina: evaluación, manejo y complicaciones. An Pediatr (Barc). 2009;71(Espec Congr):36-38. Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Colombo C, Costantini D, Zazzeron L, Faelli N, Russo MC, Ghisleni D, Gatelli I, Giovannini M, Riva E, Zetterström R, Agostoni C. Benefits of breastfeeding in cystic fibrosis: a single-centre follow-up survey. Acta Paediatr. 2007 Aug;96(8):1228-32. Epub 2007 Jun 21. Abstract
  8. Parker EM, O'Sullivan BP, Shea JC, Regan MM, Freedman SD. Survey of breast-feeding practices and outcomes in the cystic fibrosis population. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004 Apr;37(4):362-7. Abstract
  9. Borowitz D, Baker RD, Stallings V. Consensus report on nutrition for pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002 Sep;35(3):246-59. Review. No abstract available. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Sinaasappel M, Stern M, Littlewood J, Wolfe S, Steinkamp G, Heijerman HG, Robberecht E, Döring G. Nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis: a European Consensus. J Cyst Fibros. 2002 Jun;1(2):51-75. Review. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Holliday KE, Allen JR, Waters DL, Gruca MA, Thompson SM, Gaskin KJ. Growth of human milk-fed and formula-fed infants with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1991 Jan;118(1):77-9. No abstract available. Abstract

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e-lactancia is a resource recommended by Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine - 2006 of United States of America

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