Last update Feb. 16, 2021

Bevacizumab (intravitreal)

Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

It is a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody (IgG1 immunoglobulin) produced by recombinant DNA technology.
It works by blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor.
Intravitreal administration is used in macular degeneration due to choroidal neovascularization.

It is excreted in breastmilk in clinically insignificant amounts, with undetectable levels (McFarland 2015, Ehlken 2012) and no problems have been observed in infants whose mothers had been given it (Mc Farland 2015, Tarantola 2010).

Intravitreal administration: the small dose and the minimal transfer to blood from the vitreous humor as well as there being no detected levels in breastmilk or side effects in infants make this type of administration safe during breastfeeding.

A study has recorded a 35% decrease in the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breastmilk, without specifying problems in the infant, for this reason some authors recommend the use of ranibizumab which does not seem to decrease the concentration of VEGF (Ehlken 2012).

Null or negligible passage into breast milk of similar monoclonal antibodies, such as adalimumab, belimumab, certolizumab, golimumab, infliximab, ipilimumab, natalizumab, rituximab, tocilizumab and ustekinumab has been confirmed (Bar-Gil 2021, LaHue 2020, Saito 2020, 2019 and 2018, Krysko 2019, Whittam 2019, Klenske 2019, Matro 2018, Anderson 2018, Bragnes 2017, Witzel 2014, Ross 2014, Fritzsche 2012).

Due to its protein nature, it is inactivated in the gastrointestinal tract without being absorbed (practically nil oral bioavailability) and this hinders or prevents its passage into the infant´s plasma from ingested breast milk (Lactmed, Rademaker 2018, Bragnes 2017, Götestam 2016 , Witzel 2014, Butler 2014, Mervic 2014) except for premature infants and during the immediate neonatal period when there might be a greater intestinal permeability (Sammaritano 2020).

No problems have been detected in infants whose mothers received other similar monoclonal antibodies such as belimumab, bevacizumab, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab, or ustekinumab (Bar-Gil 2021, LaHue 2020, Saito 2020, 2019 and 2018, Klenske 2019, Mugheddu 2019, Krysko 2019, Matro 2018, Bragnes 2017, Hyrich 2014, Danve 2014).

Expert authors consider that the use of monoclonal antibodies during breastfeeding is safe or very likely to be safe (Whittam 2019, Matro 2018, Anderson 2018 and 2016, Witzel 2014, Pistilli 2013).

Given the strong evidence that exists on the benefits of breastfeeding and the development of babies and the health of their mothers, it might be appropriate to evaluate the risk-benefit of any maternal treatment, including chemotherapy, and counsel individually each mother who wishes to continue breastfeeding (Koren 2013).


See below the information of this related product:

Alternatives

  • Ranibizumab ( Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.)

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Bevacizumab (intravitreal) in other languages or writings:

  • Immunoglobulin G1 (human-mouse monoclonal rhuMAb-VEGF γ-chain anti-human vascular endothelial growth factor), disulfide with human-mouse monoclonal rhuMAb-VEGF light chain, dimer (Chemical name)
  • C6538 H10034 N1716 O2033 S44 (Molecular formula)
  • L01XC07; S01Xxx (ATC Code/s)

Groups

Bevacizumab (intravitreal) belongs to these groups or families:

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. 0 %
Molecular weight 149.000 daltons
Tmax 480 hours

References

  1. Bar-Gil Shitrit A, Ben-Horin S, Mishael T, Hoyda A, Yavzori M, Picard O, Grisaru-Granovsky S, Helman S. Detection of Ustekinumab in Breast Milk of Nursing Mothers With Crohn Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2021 Jan 2. pii: izaa325. Abstract
  2. Krysko KM, LaHue SC, Anderson A, Rutatangwa A, Rowles W, Schubert RD, Marcus J, Riley CS, Bevan C, Hale TW, Bove R. Minimal breast milk transfer of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody used in neurological conditions. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019 Nov 12;7(1). pii: e637. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  3. LaHue SC, Anderson A, Krysko KM, Rutatangwa A, Dorsey MJ, Hale T, Mahadevan U, Rogers EE, Rosenstein MG, Bove R. Transfer of monoclonal antibodies into breastmilk in neurologic and non-neurologic diseases. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2020 May 27;7(4). pii: e769. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  4. Saito J, Yakuwa N, Ishizuka T, Goto M, Yamatani A, Murashima A. Belimumab Concentrations in Maternal Serum and Breast Milk During Breastfeeding and the Safety Assessment of the Infant: A Case Study. Breastfeed Med. 2020 Jul;15(7):475-477. Abstract
  5. Sammaritano LR, Bermas BL, Chakravarty EE, Chambers C, Clowse MEB, Lockshin MD, Marder W, Guyatt G, Branch DW, Buyon J, Christopher-Stine L, Crow-Hercher R, Cush J, Druzin M, Kavanaugh A, Laskin CA, Plante L, Salmon J, Simard J, Somers EC, Steen V, Tedeschi SK, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Management of Reproductive Health in Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Apr;72(4):529-556. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  6. Klenske E, Osaba L, Nagore D, Rath T, Neurath MF, Atreya R. Drug Levels in the Maternal Serum, Cord Blood and Breast Milk of a Ustekinumab-Treated Patient with Crohn's Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Feb 1;13(2):267-269. Abstract
  7. Saito J, Yakuwa N, Kaneko K, Takai C, Goto M, Nakajima K, Yamatani A, Murashima A. Tocilizumab during pregnancy and lactation: drug levels in maternal serum, cord blood, breast milk and infant serum. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Aug 1;58(8):1505-1507. Abstract
  8. Whittam DH, Tallantyre EC, Jolles S, Huda S, Moots RJ, Kim HJ, Robertson NP, Cree BAC, Jacob A. Rituximab in neurological disease: principles, evidence and practice. Pract Neurol. 2019 Feb;19(1):5-20. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  9. Mugheddu C, Atzori L, Lappi A, Murgia S, Rongioletti F. Biologics exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding in a psoriasis patient. Dermatol Ther. 2019 May;32(3):e12895. Abstract
  10. Matro R, Martin CF, Wolf D, Shah SA, Mahadevan U. Exposure Concentrations of Infants Breastfed by Women Receiving Biologic Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Effects of Breastfeeding on Infections and Development. Gastroenterology. 2018 Sep;155(3):696-704. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Saito J, Yakuwa N, Takai C, Nakajima K, Kaneko K, Goto M, Ishikawa Y, Murashima A. Tocilizumab concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk during breastfeeding and a safety assessment in infants: a case study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018 Aug 1;57(8):1499-1501. Abstract
  12. Rademaker M, Agnew K, Andrews M, Armour K, Baker C, Foley P, Frew J, Gebauer K, Gupta M, Kennedy D, Marshman G, Sullivan J. Psoriasis in those planning a family, pregnant or breast-feeding. The Australasian Psoriasis Collaboration. Australas J Dermatol. 2018 May;59(2):86-100. Abstract
  13. Anderson PO. Drug Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis During Breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2018 Nov;13(9):575-577. Abstract
  14. Bragnes Y, Boshuizen R, de Vries A, Lexberg Å, Østensen M. Low level of Rituximab in human breast milk in a patient treated during lactation. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jun 1;56(6):1047-1048. Abstract
  15. Anderson PO. Monoclonal Antibodies. Breastfeed Med. 2016 Apr;11:100-1. Abstract
  16. Götestam Skorpen C, Hoeltzenbein M, Tincani A, Fischer-Betz R, Elefant E, Chambers C, da Silva J, Nelson-Piercy C, Cetin I, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Dolhain R, Förger F, Khamashta M, Ruiz-Irastorza G, Zink A, Vencovsky J, Cutolo M, Caeyers N, Zumbühl C, Østensen M. The EULAR points to consider for use of antirheumatic drugs before pregnancy, and during pregnancy and lactation. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 May;75(5):795-810. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. McFarland TJ, Rhoads AD, Hartzell M, Emerson GG, Bhavsar AR, Stout JT. BEVACIZUMAB LEVELS IN BREAST MILK AFTER LONG-TERM INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS. Retina. 2015 Aug;35(8):1670-3. Abstract
  18. Witzel SJ. Lactation and the use of biologic immunosuppressive medications. Breastfeed Med. 2014 Dec;9(10):543-6. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Ross E, Robinson SE, Amato C, McMillan C, Westcott J, Wolf T, Robinson WA. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human breast milk: a case study. Melanoma Res. 2014 Apr;24(2):177-80. Abstract
  20. Hyrich KL, Verstappen SM. Biologic therapies and pregnancy: the story so far. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Aug;53(8):1377-85. Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  21. Butler DC, Heller MM, Murase JE. Safety of dermatologic medications in pregnancy and lactation: Part II. Lactation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Mar;70(3):417.e1-10; quiz 427. Abstract
  22. Mervic L. Management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in pregnancy and lactation in the era of biologics. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2014;23(2):27-31. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  23. Danve A, Perry L, Deodhar A. Use of belimumab throughout pregnancy to treat active systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014 Oct;44(2):195-7. Abstract
  24. Koren G, Carey N, Gagnon R, Maxwell C, Nulman I, Senikas V; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Cancer chemotherapy and pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013 Mar;35(3):263-278. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  25. Pistilli B, Bellettini G, Giovannetti E, Codacci-Pisanelli G, Azim HA Jr, Benedetti G, Sarno MA, Peccatori FA. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding? Cancer Treat Rev. 2013 May;39(3):207-11. Abstract
  26. Fritzsche J, Pilch A, Mury D, Schaefer C, Weber-Schoendorfer C. Infliximab and adalimumab use during breastfeeding. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Sep;46(8):718-9. Abstract
  27. Ehlken C, Martin G, Stahl A, Agostini HT. Reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor a in human breast milk after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab but not ranibizumab. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep;130(9):1226-7. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  28. Tarantola RM, Folk JC, Boldt HC, Mahajan VB. Intravitreal bevacizumab during pregnancy. Retina. 2010 Oct;30(9):1405-11. Abstract

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