Last update: Nov. 30, 2019


Low Risk for breastfeeding

Moderately safe. Probably compatible.
Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended.
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Since the last update there is no valid scientific evidence that the use of probiotics is effective in treating or prevent mastitis or breast pain in women (Amir 2014, Baeza 2015, Espinola 2016, Amir 2016). Its indiscriminate use may delay other treatments and be economically expensive (Amir 2016).
Evidence that orally administered can get into the milk is lacking (Elias 2011).
The use of presumably preventive probiotics during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of mastitis and other complications of breastfeeding during the first month of breastfeeding (Karlsson 2019).

The administration of probiotics to the mother may partially alter the composition of milk: changes have been shown in the lipid profile, IgA levels (increase or decrease depending on studies) and in other immunological factors as cytokines IL-27, TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 (Kubota 2014, Nikniaz 2013, Luoto 2012, Hoppu 2012, Prescott 2008, Böttcher 2008). The impact and importance of this are not well known.

Research on the use of probiotics for treatment or prevent various pathological conditions, necrotizing enterocolitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis (Wickens 2013, Rautava 2012 y 2002, Boyle 2011, Foisy 2011, Dotterud 2010), colicky pain, mastitis (Fernández 2014, Arroyo 2010, Jiménez 2008), breast pain, vaginitis, gastroenteritis (see specific sheet of Saccharomyces boulardii) and inflammatory bowel disease, among others, is very promising, but so far with very modest results and the lack of significant scientific level 1 evidence based (Foisy 2011, Thomas 2010, Boyle 2006).

Probiotics seem to be safe (Snydman 2008, Borriello 2002), except in cases of Immune disease, severe intestinal compromise, diabetes or heart disease in the mother and prematurity (Sotoudegan 2019, Doron 2015, Boyle 2006). Although rare, there have been cases of serious probiotic infections when administering probiotics in patients with any of these pathological conditions (Chakravarty 2019, Cavicchiolo 2019, Celis 2019, Land 2005, Mackay 1999, Rautio 1999).

Probiotic mixtures (more than single strains) decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants (Robertson 2019, Bührer 2019, Bi 2019).

Breast milk is an important source of probiotics and probiotics (Walker 2013, Weng 2013, Weber 2012, Novak 2001). Contains numerous species of saprophytic bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus salivarius, Enterococci , Lactobacilli) with immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Heikkilä 2003). Also, contains oligosaccharides that promote the growth of these commensal bacteria in the infant gut .

Breastfeeding plays a fundamental role in the colonization of the newborn gut (Walker 2013, Weber 2012, Martín 2012, Thum 2012, Penders 2006). During the first years of life intestinal flora of infants varies according to whether or not breastfed.

See below the information of these related products:


We do not have alternatives for Probiotics.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Probiotics is also known as

Probiotics in other languages or writings:


Probiotics belongs to this group or family:


Main tradenames from several countries containing Probiotics in its composition:


  1. Bi LW, Yan BL, Yang QY, Li MM, Cui HL. Which is the best probiotic treatment strategy to prevent the necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Oct;98(41):e17521. Abstract
  2. Celis Castañeda LA, Morales Camacho WJ, Durán Ochoa NM. [Sepsis due to Lactobacillus reuteri in an extreme preterm newborn: case report]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2019 Oct 1;117(5):e509-e513. Spanish. Abstract
  3. Cavicchiolo ME, Magnani M, Calgaro S, Bonadies L, Castagliulo I, Morelli L, Verlato G, Baraldi E. Neonatal sepsis associated with Lactobacillus supplementation. J Perinat Med. 2019 Nov 12. pii: /j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2019-0268/jpm-2019-0268.xml. Abstract
  4. Karlsson S, Brantsæter AL, Meltzer HM, Jacobsson B, Barman M, Sengpiel V. Maternal probiotic milk intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding complications in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Sep 10. Abstract
  5. Sotoudegan F, Daniali M, Hassani S, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Reappraisal of probiotics' safety in human. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Jul;129:22-29. Abstract
  6. Chakravarty S, Parashar A, Acharyya S. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sepsis Following Probiotic Therapy in an Infant. Indian Pediatr. 2019 Nov 15;56(11):971-972. Abstract
  7. Robertson C, Savva GM, Clapuci R, Jones J, Maimouni H, Brown E, Minocha A, Hall LJ, Clarke P. Incidence of necrotising enterocolitis before and after introducing routine prophylactic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotics. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2019 Oct 30. pii: fetalneonatal-2019-317346. Abstract
  8. Bührer C, Fischer HS, Wellmann S. Nutritional interventions to reduce rates of infection, necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in very preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2019 Oct 23. Abstract
  9. Espínola-Docio B, Costa-Romero M, Díaz-Gómez NM, Paricio-Talayero JM; Comité de Lactancia Materna, Asociación Española de Pediatría.. Mastitis. Puesta al día. [Mastitis update.] Arch Argent Pediatr. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Amir LH, Griffin L, Cullinane M, Garland SM. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing? Int Breastfeed J. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Doron S, Snydman DR. Risk and safety of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 May 15;60 Suppl 2:S129-34. Abstract
  12. Baeza C. Dolor en la mama lactante: claves etiológicas y manejo clínico (I). Monografías Clínicas en Lactancia Materna. Madrid: Centro Raíces 2015, p.3-13. 2015 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. Amir LH; Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis, Revised March 2014. Breastfeed Med. 2014;9(5):239-243. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  14. Amir LH. y el Comité de protocolos de la Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Protocolo clínico de la ABM n.o 4: Mastitis, modi cado en marzo de 2014. Breastfeed Med. 2014;9(5):239-243. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  15. Fernández L, Arroyo R, Espinosa I, Marín M, Jiménez E, Rodríguez JM. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis. Benef Microbes. 2014 Abstract
  16. Kubota T, Shimojo N, Nonaka K, Yamashita M, Ohara O, Igoshi Y, Ozawa N, Nakano T, Morita Y, Inoue Y, Arima T, Chiba K, Nakamura Y, Ikegami S, Masuda K, Suzuki S, Kohno Y. Prebiotic consumption in pregnant and lactating women increases IL-27 expression in human milk. Br J Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  17. Nikniaz L, Ostadrahimi A, Mahdavi R, Hejazi MA, Salekdeh GH. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk levels of IgA, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2. J Hum Lact. 2013 Abstract
  18. Walker WA. Initial intestinal colonization in the human infant and immune homeostasis. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Weng M, Walker WA. The role of gut microbiota in programming the immune phenotype. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  20. Wickens K, Stanley TV, Mitchell EA, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Siebers R, Black PN, Crane J. Early supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 reduces eczema prevalence to 6 years: does it also reduce atopic sensitization? Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Abstract
  21. Luoto R, Laitinen K, Nermes M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Early Hum Dev. 2012 Jun;88(6):339-44. Abstract
  22. Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  23. Hoppu U, Isolauri E, Laakso P, Matomäki J, Laitinen K. Probiotics and dietary counselling targeting maternal dietary fat intake modifies breast milk fatty acids and cytokines. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Abstract
  24. Weber TK, Polanco I. Gastrointestinal microbiota and some children diseases: a review. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  25. Martín V, Maldonado-Barragán A, Moles L, Rodriguez-Baños M, Campo RD, Fernández L, Rodríguez JM, Jiménez E. Sharing of bacterial strains between breast milk and infant feces. J Hum Lact. 2012 Abstract
  26. Thum C, Cookson AL, Otter DE, McNabb WC, Hodgkinson AJ, Dyer J, Roy NC. Can nutritional modulation of maternal intestinal microbiota influence the development of the infant gastrointestinal tract? J Nutr. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  27. Foisy M, Boyle RJ, Chalmers JR, Simpson EL, Williams HC. Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews. Evid Based Child Health. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  28. Elias J, Bozzo P, Einarson A. Are probiotics safe for use during pregnancy and lactation? Can Fam Physician. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  29. Boyle RJ, Ismail IH, Kivivuori S, Licciardi PV, Robins-Browne RM, Mah LJ, Axelrad C, Moore S, Donath S, Carlin JB, Lahtinen SJ, Tang ML. Lactobacillus GG treatment during pregnancy for the prevention of eczema: a randomized controlled trial. Allergy. 2011 Abstract
  30. Thomas DW, Greer FR; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  31. Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  32. Arroyo R, Martín V, Maldonado A, Jiménez E, Fernández L, Rodríguez JM. Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of Lactobacilli isolated from breast milk. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  33. Jiménez E, Fernández L, Maldonado A, Martín R, Olivares M, Xaus J, Rodríguez JM. Oral administration of Lactobacillus strains isolated from breast milk as an alternative for the treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  34. Snydman DR. The safety of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  35. Prescott SL, Wickens K, Westcott L, Jung W, Currie H, Black PN, Stanley TV, Mitchell EA, Fitzharris P, Siebers R, Wu L, Crane J; Probiotic Study Group. Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in pregnancy increases cord blood interferon-gamma and breast milk transforming growth factor-beta and immunoglobin A detection. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 Abstract
  36. Böttcher MF, Abrahamsson TR, Fredriksson M, Jakobsson T, Björkstén B. Low breast milk TGF-beta2 is induced by Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation and associates with reduced risk of sensitization during infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008 Abstract
  37. Penders J, Thijs C, Vink C, Stelma FF, Snijders B, Kummeling I, van den Brandt PA, Stobberingh EE. Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Pediatrics. 2006
  38. Boyle RJ, Robins-Browne RM, Tang ML. Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks? Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  39. Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, Cannon ML, Cnota J, Shetty AK. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):178-81. Abstract
  40. Heikkilä MP, Saris PE. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the commensal bacteria of human milk. J Appl Microbiol. 2003 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  41. Borriello SP, Hammes WP, Holzapfel W, Marteau P, Schrezenmeir J, Vaara M, Valtonen V. Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  42. Rautava S, Kalliomäki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  43. Novak FR, Almeida JA, Silva GO, Borba LM. [Human colostrum: a natural source of probiotics?] J Pediatr (Rio J). 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  44. Mackay AD, Taylor MB, Kibbler CC, Hamilton-Miller JM. Lactobacillus endocarditis caused by a probiotic organism. Clin Microbiol Infect. 1999 May;5(5):290-292. No abstract available. Abstract
  45. Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, Pietarinen I, Saxelin M, Tynkkynen S, Koskela M. Liver abscess due to a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 May;28(5):1159-60. No abstract available. Abstract

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