Last update: Feb. 6, 2020
Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.
According to populations, between 5% and 60% of women who become pregnant while still breastfeeding continue breastfeeding during pregnancy (Molitoris 2019, López 2017, Merchant 1990).
No differences were found in the duration of pregnancy, or in the weight of the newborn or in its subsequent growth or in spontaneous abortion rate between healthy and well-nourished pregnant women who continue to breastfeed and those who do not (Molitoris 2019, López 2017 , Shaaban 2015, Couple 2015, Ayrim 2014, Cetin 2014, Madarshahian 2012, Ishii 2009, Moscone 1993).
A retrospective study with many limitations showed a higher risk of spontaneous abortion with exclusive breastfeeding during pregnancy but not with breastfeeding with complementary feeding (Molitoris 2019), which
could be explained in reality by the lower spacing between pregnancies.
The nutritional, energy, mineral and vitamin needs are very high in pregnancy and more in breastfeeding (Molitoris 2019); that's why has been published less increase in body weight and lower level of hemoglobin, along with other problems, has been shown among women from economically deprived populations (Shaaban 2015, Ayrim 2014; Marquis 2003 y 2002, Siega 1993).
Ensuring the necessary extra dietary intake, breastfeeding is considered compatible and safe in a new pregnancy (CLM 2012, HWA 2009). The Breastfeeding Working Group of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine has positioned themselves in this regard (Cetin 2014).
Although nipple stimulation has been used to cause cervical maturation and induce labor (Kavanagh 2005), there is no evidence that oxytocin released during breastfeeding can induce premature birth or spontaneous abortion (Molitoris 2019), due to that the peak of oxytocin is not enough since uterine oxytocin receptors are not complete until the end of pregnancy in the uterus (López 2017).
Historically, breastfeeding has been regard as an contraceptive method. However, whenever not exclusive and beyond the first six-month period (LAM), breastfeeding should not be considered a reliable method for this purpose, nor should be a cause to avoid a new pregnancy (Tikka 1998, Short 1991, Chao 1987).
Possibly because of change in milk taste, higher nipple sensitivity, rejection feelings by the mother to continue breastfeeding, decreased production and spontaneous weaning are factors to stop breastfeeding while pregnancy (Moscone 1993).
Whenever breastfeeding was chosen to be continued, the breast produces colostrum again at the time of delivery and immediate puerperium.
Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.
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