Last update: July 21, 2017

(General Anesthesia)

Very Low Risk for breastfeeding

Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.

Most anesthetics are eliminated rapidly hence the mother can nurse her infant immediately after she has recovered from anesthesia and general conditions allow it.

See in this web page the specific agent to be used.

See below the information of this related group:


We do not have alternatives for (General Anesthesia) since it is relatively safe.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.


(General Anesthesia) belongs to this group or family:


  1. Reece-Stremtan Sarah, Campos Matilde, Kokajko Lauren, and The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Breastfeeding Medicine. ABM Clinical Protocol #15: Analgesia and Anesthesia for the Breastfeeding Mother, Revised 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine. 2017 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  2. Alus Tokat M, Serçekuş P, Yenal K, Okumuş H. Early Postpartum Breast-Feeding Outcomes and Breast-Feeding Self-Efficacy in Turkish Mothers Undergoing Vaginal Birth or Cesarean Birth With Different Types of Anesthesia. Int J Nurs Knowl. 2014 Abstract
  3. Dalal PG, Bosak J, Berlin C. Safety of the breast-feeding infant after maternal anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2014 Abstract
  4. Simşek Y, Karabiyik P, Polat K, Duran Z, Polat A. Mode of delivery changes oxidative and antioxidative properties of human milk: a prospective controlled clinical investigation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Abstract
  5. Kutlucan L, Seker İS, Demiraran Y, Ersoy Ö, Karagöz İ, Sezen G, Köse SA. Effects of different anesthesia protocols on lactation in the postpartum period. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 2014 Abstract
  6. Kranke P, Frambach T, Schelling P, Wirbelauer J, Schaefer C, Stamer U. [Anaesthesia and breast-feeding: should breast-feeding be discouraged?]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2011 Abstract
  7. Sønderskov ML, Albrechtsen CK, Bille AB, Henneberg S, Afshari A. [Most anaesthetics can be used without damaging effects of the breastfed child]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2011 Abstract
  8. Dahl JB. [Infants can be breastfed immediately after general anesthesia of the mother]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2011 Abstract
  9. Stuttmann R, Schäfer C, Hilbert P, Meyer MR, Maurer HH. The breast feeding mother and xenon anaesthesia: four case reports. Breast feeding and xenon anaesthesia. BMC Anesthesiol. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Wieczorek PM, Guest S, Balki M, Shah V, Carvalho JC. Breastfeeding success rate after vaginal delivery can be high despite the use of epidural fentanyl: an observational cohort study. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2010 Abstract
  11. Wilson MJ, MacArthur C, Cooper GM, Bick D, Moore PA, Shennan A; COMET Study Group UK. Epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial of epidural techniques with and without fentanyl and a non-epidural comparison group. Anaesthesia. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  12. Cohen RS. Fentanyl transdermal analgesia during pregnancy and lactation. J Hum Lact. 2009 Abstract
  13. Glader EL, Spigset O. [Should breast feeding mothers dispose of their milk after anesthesia?]. Lakartidningen. 2009 Abstract
  14. Birkholz T, Eckardt G, Renner S, Irouschek A, Schmidt J. Green breast milk after propofol administration. Anesthesiology. 2009 Abstract
  15. Matsota PK, Markantonis SL, Fousteri MZ, Pandazi AK, Manikis DE, Christodoulopoulou TC, Loizou MM, Kostopanagiotou GG. Excretion of ropivacaine in breast milk during patient-controlled epidural analgesia after cesarean delivery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009 Abstract
  16. Goma HM, Said RN, El-Ela AM. Study of the newborn feeding behaviors and fentanyl concentration in colostrum after an analgesic dose of epidural and intravenous fentanyl in cesarean section. Saudi Med J. 2008 Abstract
  17. Torvaldsen S, Roberts CL, Simpson JM, Thompson JF, Ellwood DA. Intrapartum epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study. Int Breastfeed J. 2006 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  18. Nitsun M, Szokol JW, Saleh HJ, Murphy GS, Vender JS, Luong L, Raikoff K, Avram MJ. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam, propofol, and fentanyl transfer to human breast milk. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Abstract
  19. Wang BP, Li QL, Hu YF. [Impact of epidural anesthesia during delivery on breast feeding]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2005 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  20. Beilin Y, Bodian CA, Weiser J, Hossain S, Arnold I, Feierman DE, Martin G, Holzman I. Effect of labor epidural analgesia with and without fentanyl on infant breast-feeding: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Anesthesiology. 2005 Abstract
  21. Jordan S, Emery S, Bradshaw C, Watkins A, Friswell W. The impact of intrapartum analgesia on infant feeding. BJOG. 2005 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  22. Sener EB, Guldogus F, Karakaya D, Baris S, Kocamanoglu S, Tur A. Comparison of neonatal effects of epidural and general anesthesia for cesarean section. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003 Abstract
  23. Lang C, Geldner G, Wulf H. [Anesthesia in the breast feeding period. Excretion of anesthetic agents and adjuvants into breast milk and potential pharmacological side-effects on the suckling infant]. Anaesthesist. 2003 Abstract
  24. Al-Takroni AM, Parvathi CK, Mendis KB, Hassan S, Qunaibi AM. Early oral intake after caesarean section performed under general anaesthesia. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Abstract
  25. Borgatta L, Jenny RW, Gruss L, Ong C, Barad D. Clinical significance of methohexital, meperidine, and diazepam in breast milk. J Clin Pharmacol. 1997 Abstract
  26. Dailland P, Cockshott ID, Lirzin JD, Jacquinot P, Jorrot JC, Devery J, Harmey JL, Conseiller C. Intravenous propofol during cesarean section: placental transfer, concentrations in breast milk, and neonatal effects. A preliminary study. Anesthesiology. 1989 Abstract
  27. Lie B, Juul J. Effect of epidural vs. general anesthesia on breastfeeding. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1988 Abstract
  28. Abouleish E, Donck AV, Meeuwis H, Taylor F. Effect of anaesthesia for delivery on the weight of infants during the first 5 days of life. Br J Anaesth. 1978 Abstract
  29. Morgan L, Barrett A, Beswick F, Hollway T, Raggatt PR. Prolactin concentrations during anaesthesia. Br Med J. 1976 Abstract Full text (link to original source)

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