Last update: July 11, 2016


Very Low Risk for breastfeeding

Safe. Compatible.
Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.

Thiamine or Vitamin B1 is a water soluble vitamin. In addition to Thiamine, other chemical compounds with similar activity: Acetiamine, Benfotiamine, Bisbentiamine, Bisbutiamina, Cetotiamina, Cicotiamina, Cocarboxylase, Fursultiamine, Monofosfotiamina, Octotiamine, Pyrophosphotiamine, Prosultiamine and Sulbutiamine.
It is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrate nutrients.

Its deficiency causes severe neuromuscular and cardiac symptoms known as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease. Thiamine deficiency is common among disadvantaged populations in Southeast Asia (predominantly consumers of refined rice), other malnourished people (refugees, low socioeconomic status ...) and chronic alcohol consumption.
Beriberi of childhood, both infants and children, may arise from breastfeeding by Thiamine deficient mothers. Reportedly, several severe cases have occured after feeding the babies with artificial formulas that were not supplemented with vitamin B1.

Daily allowance is higher during pregnancy and lactation (1.5 mg / day) which is readily obtained through a varied diet with adequate content of whole grains, legumes, nuts, eggs and lean meat.
Thiamine is excreted in breast milk and gradually increases with time, being lower in colostrum (28 ng / mL) and transitional milk than in mature milk (180 ng / mL). The concentration is lower in milk from mothers of preterm (90 ng / mL).

Taking vitamin supplementation is not required if diet and nutritional status are adequate. Supplementation does not increase levels in milk of well-nourished women, but of those with a low nutritional status. The supplementation of group B vitamins and C and E vitamins to HIV positive mothers improves the weight growth of their breasted babies.
There is no evidence of their effectiveness in improving athletic performance, lack of appetite, sores, stress, fatigue or aging.
Toxicity linked to excessive consumption of thiamine is not known.

WHO List of Essential Medicines 2002: compatible with breastfeeding.
American Academy of Pediatrics: usually compatible with breastfeeding


We do not have alternatives for C12H17ClN4OS since it is relatively safe.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.


C12H17ClN4OS belongs to this group or family:


Main tradenames from several countries containing C12H17ClN4OS in its composition:


Variable Value Unit
Bioavailability 5,3 %
Molecular weight 308 - 771 daltons
Tmax 1 hours
T1/2 2,5 hours


  1. Ren X, Yang Z, Shao B, Yin SA, Yang X. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China. PLoS One. 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  2. Ares Segura S, Arena Ansótegui J, Díaz-Gómez NM; en representación del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales? [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?] An Pediatr (Barc). 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  3. Moulin P, Cinq-Frais C, Gangloff C, Peyre M, Seguela PE, Charpentier S, Cascarigny F, Alcouffe F, Periquet B, Dulac Y, Acar P. [Thiamine deficiency in infants: a case report]. Arch Pediatr. 2014 Abstract
  4. Coats D, Frank EL, Reid JM, Ou K, Chea M, Khin M, Preou C, Enders FT, Fischer PR, Topazian M. Thiamine pharmacokinetics in Cambodian mothers and their breastfed infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  5. Bowman BA, Pfeiffer CM, Barfield WD. Thiamine deficiency, beriberi, and maternal and child health: why pharmacokinetics matter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. Allen LH. B vitamins in breast milk: relative importance of maternal status and intake, and effects on infant status and function. Adv Nutr. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Stuetz W, Carrara VI, McGready R, Lee SJ, Erhardt JG, Breuer J, Biesalski HK, Nosten FH. Micronutrient status in lactating mothers before and after introduction of fortified flour: cross-sectional surveys in Maela refugee camp. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Stuetz W, Carrara VI, McGready R, Lee SJ, Biesalski HK, Nosten FH. Thiamine diphosphate in whole blood, thiamine and thiamine monophosphate in breast-milk in a refugee population. PLoS One. 2012 Abstract
  9. Shamir R. Thiamine-deficient infant formula: what happened and what have we learned? Ann Nutr Metab. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Rao SN, Chandak GR. Cardiac beriberi: often a missed diagnosis. J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Abstract
  11. Hall Moran V, Lowe N, Crossland N, Berti C, Cetin I, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Dykes F. Nutritional requirements during lactation. Towards European alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network. Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  12. Fattal-Valevski A, Kesler A, Sela BA, Nitzan-Kaluski D, Rotstein M, Mesterman R, Toledano-Alhadef H, Stolovitch C, Hoffmann C, Globus O, Eshel G. Outbreak of life-threatening thiamine deficiency in infants in Israel caused by a defective soy-based formula. Pediatrics. 2005 Abstract
  13. Siegel-Itzkovich J. Police in Israel launch investigation into deaths of babies given formula milk. BMJ. 2003 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  14. WHO / UNICEF. BREASTFEEDING AND MATERNAL MEDICATION Recommendations for Drugs in the Eleventh WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (WHO/UNICEF) 2002 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  15. AAP - American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):776-89. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  16. Greer FR. Do breastfed infants need supplemental vitamins? Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001 Abstract
  17. McGready R, Simpson JA, Cho T, Dubowitz L, Changbumrung S, Böhm V, Munger RG, Sauberlich HE, White NJ, Nosten F. Postpartum thiamine deficiency in a Karen displaced population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  18. Butterworth RF. Maternal thiamine deficiency: still a problem in some world communities. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  19. Doran L, Evers S. Energy and nutrient inadequacies in the diets of low-income women who breast-feed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Abstract
  20. Loew D. Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Abstract
  21. Tallaksen CM, Sande A, Bøhmer T, Bell H, Karlsen J. Kinetics of thiamin and thiamin phosphate esters in human blood, plasma and urine after 50 mg intravenously or orally. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Abstract
  22. Debuse PJ. Shoshin beriberi in an infant of a thiamine-deficient mother. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Abstract
  23. Ford JE, Zechalko A, Murphy J, Brooke OG. Comparison of the B vitamin composition of milk from mothers of preterm and term babies. Arch Dis Child. 1983 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  24. Stolley H, Galgan V, Droese W. [Nutrient content in human milk: protein, lactose, minerals, trace elements, and thiamin (author's transl)]. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1981 Abstract
  25. Thomas MR, Sneed SM, Wei C, Nail PA, Wilson M, Sprinkle EE 3rd. The effects of vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin on the breast milk and maternal status of well-nourished women at 6 months postpartum. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Abstract
  26. Nail PA, Thomas MR, Eakin R. The effect of thiamin and riboflavin supplementation on the level of those vitamins in human breast milk and urine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Abstract

Total visits


Help us improve this entry

How to cite this entry

Do you need more information or did not found what you were looking for?

   Write to us at

e-lactancia is a resource recommended by La Liga de la Leche, España from Spain

Would you like to recommend the use of e-lactancia? Write to us at corporate mail of APILAM